Windows Tips & Tricks UPDATE, July 12, 2004, —brought to you by the Windows & .NET Magazine Network and the Windows 2000 FAQ site
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- Q. How can I merge multiple primary versions of the same DNS zone for different servers into one Active Directory-integrated zone?
- Q. What causes the error I receive in the event log when I attempt to replicate the ForestDNSZones directory partition?
- Q. What are the NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP name-resolution types?
- Q. How can I restore tombstoned objects?
- Q. How can I load more than one third-party disk controller disk during Windows Server 2003 setup?
by John Savill, FAQ Editor, firstname.lastname@example.org
This week, I tell you how to merge multiple primary versions of the same DNS zone into one Active Directory-integrated zone and explain what causes an error during an attempted replication of the ForestDNSZones directory partition. I also discuss the NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP name-resolution types, tell you how to restore tombstoned Active Directory (AD) objects, and explain how to load more than one third-party disk controller disk during Windows Server 2003 setup.
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Q. How can I merge multiple primary versions of the same DNS zone for different servers into one Active Directory-integrated zone?
A. Only one primary version of the DNS zone should exist for zones that aren't Active Directory-integrated. If necessary, you can create additional secondary versions of zones on other DNS servers to support fault tolerance and load balancing.
If you have multiple primary versions of a zone that isn't Active Directory-integrated, those zones won't replicate or remain synchronized. Here are the possible actions that can occur when you move these multiple versions into Active Directory (AD) for storage:
- After the first DNS server stores its zone information in AD, all subsequent DNS servers lose their DNS zone content and use the first DNS server's zone information in AD.
- As each DNS server is modified to store its information in AD, the new DNS zone data overwrites the existing DNS zone data in AD.
- As each DNS server is modified to store its information in AD, the new DNS server's data merges with the existing data.
When you opt to integrate the second instance of the zone (or any subsequent instance of the zone on a different DNS server) in AD--as explained in the FAQ "How can I change how DNS information is stored on a DNS server?" (http://www.winnetmag.com/articles/index.cfm?articleid=43104)--you can choose between the first and second options. In the Active Directory Service box, which the figure at http://www.winnetmag.com/content/content/43249/addnsintegrate1.gif shows, you must select either "Discard the new zone, and load the existing zone from Active Directory" or "Overwrite the existing zone in Active Directory with the new zone." After you make your selection, click OK, then click OK again to confirm it.
Q. What causes the error I receive in the event log when I attempt to replicate the ForestDNSZones directory partition?
A. The ForestDNSZones directory partition is replicated among all domain controllers (DCs) in a forest that have the DNS service installed. When you replicate ForestDNSZones, you might see an error message similar to the following (the error-message text is enclosed in quotes):
"Event Type: Error Event Source: NTDS KCC Event Category: Knowledge Consistency Checker Event ID: 1311 Date: 6/25/2004 Time: 10:43:45 AM User: NT AUTHORITY\ANONYMOUS LOGON Computer: OMEGA Description: The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) has detected problems with the following directory partition. Directory partition: DC=ForestDnsZones,DC=savilltech,DC=com There is insufficient site connectivity information in Active Directory Sites and Services for the KCC to create a spanning tree replication topology. Or, one or more domain controllers with this directory partition are unable to replicate the directory partition information. This is probably due to inaccessible domain controllers. User Action Use Active Directory Sites and Services to perform one of the following actions: - Publish sufficient site connectivity information so that the KCC can determine a route by which this directory partition can reach this site. This is the preferred option. - Add a Connection object to a domain controller that contains the directory partition in this site from a domain controller that contains the same directory partition in another site. If neither of the Active Directory Sites and Services tasks correct this condition, see previous events logged by the KCC that identify the inaccessible domain controllers. For more information, see Help and Support Center at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/events.asp."
This error can occur when you have several sites that don't have a site link between them, site-link bridging is disabled (and no site-link bridge has been manually created), and some sites have a DC that runs DNS and is connected to a site that has DCs that don't run DNS. The ForestDNSZones partition, which replicates only between DCs that have DNS installed, can't replicate across the DCs that don't have DNS installed. The figure at http://www.winnetmag.com/content/content/43249/adrepproblemfordns.gif shows a scenario in which this problem will occur. The error appears on DCs in sites A and C, assuming that no DCs in site B have DNS installed, site-link bridging is disabled, and no site-link bridge was manually created.
To solve this problem, you must either create a site-link bridge between sites A and C or, if sites A and C aren't connected because of routing restrictions, install DNS on a DC in the central site (B). Using either method allows replication through the DC in site B. You don't need to configure any zones on the DC; merely having DNS installed is enough to add the DC to the ForestDNSZones partition's replication set.
Q. What are the NetBIOS-over-TCP/IP name-resolution types?
A. Windows resolves a NetBIOS name to an IP address in three ways:
- a lookup in the LMHOSTS file
- a broadcast on the local subnet
- a request to a WINS server
Windows resolves NetBIOS names by using one of the following four methods. (The value in parentheses is the WINS/NetBT node type setting, option 46, which you must specify when you configure TCP/IP on a Windows network.) Those four methods are:
- B node (broadcast, 0x1)--Windows uses broadcasts for both name registration and name resolution. Depending on gateway configuration, a B-node client might not be able to send packets beyond the local subnet. Therefore, B node isn't suitable for large networks. Microsoft actually modified the standard B-node type so that Windows tries to resolve the name first by checking the LMHOSTS name cache. If that doesn't work, Windows sends a broadcast. Then, if the broadcast fails, Windows tries to resolve the name by checking the actual LMHOSTS file.
- P node (point-to-point, 0x2)--This method doesn't use a broadcast. Instead, at start-up, the computers on the network register their names with the configured WINS server that's also on the network. When a computer needs to resolve a name, it sends the resolution request to the WINS server. This method works as long as the WINS server is up and running. If the WINS server fails, resolution can't occur.
- M node (mixed, 0x4)--Windows uses B node (i.e., broadcasting) first and, if it fails to resolve the name, uses P node (i.e., it checks the WINS server). M node isn't the best solution because it uses broadcasts initially, which takes longer and uses more network resources than issuing a request to the WINS server.
- H node (hybrid, 0x8)--Windows uses P node first and, if it fails to resolve the name, uses B node. Therefore, Windows uses a broadcast only when the WINS lookup fails (which isn't likely). Typically, H node is the best method to use and is the default.
Q. How can I restore tombstoned objects?
A. When an object is deleted from Active Directory (AD), it isn't actually removed but is instead marked as deleted by an internal marker called a tombstone. A Sysinternals freeware product, AdRestore, lets you restore tombstoned objects. AdRestore is a command-line utility that lists and lets you restore deleted Windows Server 2003 AD objects. You can use AdRestore to restore tombstoned objects without performing an authoritative backup restore. You can download the utility at http://www.sysinternals.com/files/adrestore.zip. After you install AdRestore, you can restore an object by running the command
The -r tells AdRestore to prompt the user before restoring the AD objects to their original location. When you run the command, you'll see messages similar to the following (the message text is enclosed in quotes):
"Enumerating domain deleted objects: cn: Clark Kent DEL:26931e28-18f5-4f08-a486-760b199c9d4d distinguishedName: CN=Clark Kent\0ADEL:26931e28-18f5-4f08-a486- 760b199c9d4d,CN=Deleted Objects,DC=savilltech,DC=com lastKnownParent: CN=Users,DC=savilltech,DC=com Do you want to restore this object (y/n)? n .. Found 99 items matching search criteria."
You can optionally specify a search filter so that AdRestore displays only objects with the specified text in their name, by entering a command similar to the following
adrestore -r kent
The sample command displays only deleted objects with the name "kent". After you enter the command, you'll see a message similar to the following:
"... Enumerating domain deleted objects: cn: Clark Kent DEL:26931e28-18f5-4f08-a486-760b199c9d4d distinguishedName: CN=Clark Kent\0ADEL:26931e28-18f5-4f08-a486- 760b199c9d4d,CN=Deleted Objects,DC=savilltech,DC=com lastKnownParent: CN=Users,DC=savilltech,DC=com Do you want to restore this object (y/n)? n Found 1 item matching search criteria."
Q. How can I load more than one third-party disk controller disk during Windows Server 2003 set-up?
A. Usually, when you're prompted to press a key during Windows 2003 installation, you can press F6 to boot from the Windows 2003 CD-ROM and install an additional third-party disk controller or alternative hardware abstraction layer (HAL). If you subsequently need to install drivers or a HAL from another disk, pressing F6 again produces the following error message:
The disk you supplied does not contain relevant support files. Press any key to continue.
To avoid the error, press F6 without a disk in the drive and insert only the second disk when prompted on screen.
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