According to Parks Associates' " Digital Music: Market, Services, and Consumers" report, the Recording Industry Association of America's (RIAA's) legal campaign against music piracy has been partially effective among broadband users. The campaign has deterred 46 percent of all households from downloading music illegally off the Internet. The RIAA's efforts have affected females more than males. Fifty percent of women surveyed said the threat of legal action has discouraged them from downloading files, compared with 40 percent of men. "Given the difficulty in prosecuting such a large segment of society," John Barrett, a research analyst with Parks Associates, said, "and the fact that some ISPs will not turn over their subscriber names to the RIAA, there are several factors that embolden these downloaders."