A. You can transfer FSMO roles either by using the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory (AD) snap-ins (e.g., Active Directory Users and Computers) or the Ntdsutil utility. However, if the server trying to take ownership of the FSMO role can't contact that role, you might need to force the FSMO role transfer by using Ntdsutil with the seize switch. To use this option, perform the same actions as you usually do when transferring a role with Ntdsutil, except that instead of entering the command

fsmo maintenance: transfer &ltrole&gt

enter the command

fsmo maintenance: seize &ltrole&gt

When you use the seize option, Ntdsutil first tries to transfer the role gracefully. If that transfer fails, Ntdsutil forces the role transfer. You should use the seize option only when the current role holder will be offline indefinitely and its functionality must remain available.