Starting with Windows XP the netdom tool, from the Windows XP support tools, can perform a local or remote rename of a domain member computer.

When you type netdom /help renamecomputer, the CMD prompt displays:

The syntax of this command is:
NETDOM RENAMECOMPUTER machine /NewName:new-name
           /UserD:user \[/PasswordD:\[password | *\]\]
           \[/UserO:user \[/PasswordO:\[password | *\]\]\]
           \[/Force\]
           \[/REBoot\[:Time in seconds\]\]

NETDOM RENAMECOMPUTER renames a computer that is joined to a domain. The
computer object in the domain is also renamed. Certain services, such as the
Certificate Authority, rely on a fixed machine name. If any services of this
type are running on the target computer, then a computer name change would
have an adverse impact.

machine is the name of the workstation, member server, or domain controller
to be renamed

/NewName        Specifies the new name for the computer. Both the DNS host
                label and the NetBIOS name are changed to new-name. If
                new-name is longer than 15 characters, the NetBIOS name is
                derived from the first 15 characters

/UserD          User account used to make the connection with the domain
                to which the computer is joined. This is a required parameter.
                The domain can be specified as "/ud:domain\user". If domain is
                omitted, then the computer's domain is assumed.

/PasswordD      Password of the user account specified by /UserD. A * means
                to prompt for the password

/UserO          User account used to make the connection with the machine to
                be renamed. If omitted, then the currently logged on user's
                account is used. The user's domain can be specified as
                "/uo:domain\user". If domain is omitted, then a local computer
                account is assumed.

/PasswordO      Password of the user account specified by /UserO. A * means
                to prompt for the password

/Force          As noted above, this command can adversely affect some services
                running on the computer. The user will be prompted for
                confirmation unless the /FORCE switch is specified.

/REBoot         Specifies that the machine should be shutdown and automatically
                rebooted after the Rename has completed. The number of seconds
                before automatic shutdown can also be provided. Default is
                30 seconds