Starting with Windows XP the netdom tool, from the Windows XP support tools, can perform a local or remote rename of a domain member computer.

When you type netdom /help renamecomputer, the CMD prompt displays:

The syntax of this command is:                              NETDOM RENAMECOMPUTER machine /NewName:new-name                                         /UserD:user \[/PasswordD:\[password | *\]\]                                         \[/UserO:user \[/PasswordO:\[password | *\]\]\]                                         \[/Force\]                                         \[/REBoot\[:Time in seconds\]\]                              NETDOM RENAMECOMPUTER renames a computer that is joined to a domain. The                              computer object in the domain is also renamed. Certain services, such as the                              Certificate Authority, rely on a fixed machine name. If any services of this                              type are running on the target computer, then a computer name change would                              have an adverse impact.                              machine is the name of the workstation, member server, or domain controller                              to be renamed                              /NewName        Specifies the new name for the computer. Both the DNS host                                              label and the NetBIOS name are changed to new-name. If                                              new-name is longer than 15 characters, the NetBIOS name is                                              derived from the first 15 characters                              /UserD          User account used to make the connection with the domain                                              to which the computer is joined. This is a required parameter.                                              The domain can be specified as "/ud:domain\user". If domain is                                              omitted, then the computer's domain is assumed.                              /PasswordD      Password of the user account specified by /UserD. A * means                                              to prompt for the password                              /UserO          User account used to make the connection with the machine to                                              be renamed. If omitted, then the currently logged on user's                                              account is used. The user's domain can be specified as                                              "/uo:domain\user". If domain is omitted, then a local computer                                              account is assumed.                              /PasswordO      Password of the user account specified by /UserO. A * means                                              to prompt for the password                              /Force          As noted above, this command can adversely affect some services                                              running on the computer. The user will be prompted for                                              confirmation unless the /FORCE switch is specified.                              /REBoot         Specifies that the machine should be shutdown and automatically                                              rebooted after the Rename has completed. The number of seconds                                              before automatic shutdown can also be provided. Default is                                              30 seconds