More Windows 2000 Topics, Acronyms, and Concepts
This week, I present the third in an occasional series of Windows 2000 Ready columns that I'll devote to defining new Windows 2000 (Win2K) terms and concepts. With this series, I'll be compiling a Win2K glossary for the Windows NT Magazine Web site. If you'd like me to address any particular Win2K topics, acronyms, or concepts, email me at

Connection Point Services (CPS) gives companies a way to automatically update phone book files on clients' computers. ISPs can use CPS to update access numbers and other information that typically resides in the client phone book database. CPS consists of two major components: the Phone Book Administrator (PBA), which runs on the workstation, and the Phone Book Service (PBS), which runs on a server.

Encrypting File System (EFS) lets users encrypt files and folders so intruders can’t view their confidential data. EFS automatically generates an encryption key pair for users so they can transparently encrypt files or folders. Encryption is a new NTFS attribute in Windows 2000 (Win2K). You can use either Windows Explorer or a command-line tool called CIPHER to encrypt or decrypt files. The default encryption level that EFS provides is 56 bit; in North America, users can use 128-bit encryption with the Enhanced CryptoPAK, which you can order from Microsoft. For more information, see Windows 2000 EFS.

Fortezza represents a series of security products that include serial port devices, PC cards, server boards, and combination cards such as Fortezza/Modem and Fortezza/Ethernet. Fortezza is a registered trademark of the National Security Agency (NSA). The US Department of Defense uses Fortezza for hardware-based cryptography. You can use a Fortezza cryptography card to make secure connections to Fortezza-enabled Web sites. Before you make such a connection, you need a Fortezza cryptography card, a Fortezza cryptography card reader, and the appropriate software drivers from the card-reader vendor. You also have to enable the Use Fortezza option in Internet Explorer (IE) 5.0 (you can find this option, which IE enables by default, in the Security section of the Advanced tab under Tools, Internet Options).

A Windows 2000 (Win2K) Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) is a list of devices that Win2K supports. Hardware vendors perform certain tests on their devices to ensure that their products work reliably with Win2K before submitting the results to Microsoft. Before you install a device on your Win2K computer, you should ensure that the device is on the HCL. If you don't see a device on the HCL, don't conclude that the device won’t work reliably with Win2K—it might simply mean that the manufacturer has not designed or tested the product to meet Microsoft’s compatibility standards. Nevertheless, it's a good idea to use only products on the HCL. You can search the Win2K HCL on our Web site.

Intelligent Input/Output (I2O) is a Windows 2000 (Win2K)-supported architecture that lets you enhance server performance by offloading certain I/O processes to a secondary processor. I2O is particularly useful for high-bandwidth applications such as groupware.

LAN Emulation (LANE) is a set of software components that provide support for legacy applications and network protocols on an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network. Microsoft implements a LANE client module that installs during ATM hardware installation. LANE services provide interoperability between ATM and standard LAN environments at Layer 2 (the Data Link layer) of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model.

Multicast Routing
Multicast routing lets multicast-capable routers communicate across the network so that multicasting information forwards intelligently. Multicast routers use multicast routing protocols to communicate with other multicast routers. Examples of multicast routing protocols include Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), Protocol-Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), Protocol-Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM), and Multicast Extensions to Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF). Windows 2000 Server (Win2K Server) includes dynamic routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF, but doesn’t include any multicast routing protocols.

NetMeeting lets users communicate over the Internet or an intranet. You can talk to other people, share documents or applications with them, draw on a shared whiteboard, use videos to see others, and send messages using chat. You can access NetMeeting through Start, Programs, Accessories, Communications.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol that provides an efficient but complex dynamic routing mechanism in mid- to large-sized networks. OSPF is one of the two dynamic routing protocols that Windows 2000 (Win2K) supports (RIP is the other). Although OSPF requires very little overhead in large enterprises, it's difficult to administer and requires careful planning. Unlike Routing Information Protocol (RIP) routers, OSPF routers keep a map of the network called the link state database that updates whenever there's a change in the network topology. OSPF divides the network into areas connected to each other by a backbone area. Each router keeps track of link state databases for adjacent areas. Connecting the backbone area to other areas is the responsibility of area border routers (ABRs).

PKCS #12
Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) is part of the family of public key cryptography standards that RSA Data Security owns and maintains. Also known as personal information exchange format (PFX), PKCS #12 is an industry standard format for backing up and restoring certificates and their private keys. Windows 2000 (Win2K) supports PKCS #12 and other cryptography standards such as PKCS #7 and PKCS #10 as part of the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). PKCS #12 lets you transport certificates and their keys from one computer to another, or from a computer to a removable media. This standard supports the transfer of certificates between products from the same or different vendors.