Active Directory (AD) is a vital part of the Windows enterprise infrastructure.
Although Windows PowerShell scripting is available for Windows Server,
PowerShell doesn’t include AD cmdlets. To address this need, you can download
a free set of AD cmdlets (www.quest.com/
activeroles-server/arms.aspx) that let you easily perform basic user account operations. These cmdlets hide the complexities associated with using Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI). You can use the cmdlets with Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Domain Services (AD LDS).
You can install the AD cmdlets on any computer running PowerShell. They can be used remotely with any AD domain controller (DC) in a network.
When you install the cmdlets, the ActiveRoles Management Shell for Active Directory shortcut is added to your Start menu. Clicking this shortcut starts a shell in which you can run the AD cmdlets as well as PowerShell’s default set of cmdlets. From this shell, you can easily perform such tasks as finding a user account, finding and reporting on groups of user accounts, modifying user properties, modifying user accounts, and creating user accounts.
Finding a User Account
Finding a user account isn’t easy in VBScript code. When you don’t know the user’s distinguished name (DN), you need to construct an LDAP query, which can take many lines of code. Not only are VBScript scripts for managing AD long, they require knowledge of LDAP queries, AD schema naming, and other technical details.
Finding a user is much easier with PowerShell.
If you want to use a logon name to find a user account, all you have to do is use the Get-QADUser cmdlet. For example, if you want to find the user account associated with the sAMAccountName dsotnikov, you’d type
Let’s look at what this cmdlet is doing. First, it establishes a connection with the current AD domain using the account under which you started the shell. If you want to connect to another domain, you can use the Get-QADUser cmdlet's -Service parameter or precede the statement with the Connect-QADService cmdlet. If you want to make the connection under different credentials, you can use the Get- QADUser cmdlet’s -Credential parameter or its -ConnectionAccount and -Connection Password parameters.
Because only the username is specified (dsotnikov), the Get-QADUser cmdlet assumes you want to use its default -Identity parameter to locate the account. (Specifying the name of the default parameter is optional in the AD and Power- Shell cmdlets.) The AD cmdlets provide a variety of ways to identify objects. Besides specifying a sAMAccountName (or domain\sAMAccountName), you can specify a display name, DN, user principal name (UPN), SID, or globally unique identifier (GUID), as in
Finding and Reporting on Groups of User Accounts
Systems administrators often need to find and report on groups of user accounts. The Get-QADUser cmdlet also handles this task. For example, if you want to see all the users in the accounting department, you’d use the -Department parameter, as in
Get-QADUser -Department AccountingIf you want to see all the users in the London office, you’d use the -City parameter, like this
Get-QADUser -City LondonAs these examples show, you can use the display names of the user attributes (e.g., Department, City), so knowing the attributes’ LDAP names is no longer required. However, you can use the LDAP names if you already know them. For example, if you want to use the LDAP name for the City attribute, you can run
Get-QADUser -L London
As Table 1 shows, Get-QADUser has many attribute-specific parameters you can use in searches. Plus, there are many other available parameters, such as -Identity, -Credential, -ConnectionAccount, and -ConnectionPassword. To get the full parameter list, type
Get-Help Get-QADUser -FullGetting the information retrieved by Get- QADUser into a table, list, or .html file for easy viewing is simple. All you need to do is tell PowerShell how to format the results.
In both PowerShell and ActiveRoles Management Shell for Active Directory, the Get- cmdlets produce a collection of objects. To change the way in which these objects are presented, you need to direct, or pipe (|), the collection to another cmdlet. For example, if you want to present the information about the London users in a table, you’d pipe Get-QADUser’s results to PowerShell’s Format-Table cmdlet. To specify what attributes you want in the table and the order in which they appear, you use Format-Table’s -Property parameter. The -Property parameter is the default parameter, so specifying it in the command is optional. Thus, to present the London data in a table that includes the users’ names, departments, and titles, you’d type
If you want to convert and save the London data in an .html file, you can use PowerShell’s ConvertTo-HTML and Out- File cmdlets in the command
-Title 'London Staff' |
Continue on Page 2ConvertTo-HTML selects the properties specified with the -Property parameter (i.e., Name, Department, and Title), adds the title specified with -Title property (i.e., London Staff), and produces the corresponding HTML code. After the selected data is converted into HTML, it’s saved in the C: LondonUsers.html file with the Out-File cmdlet. For more information about the ConvertTo-HTML and Out-File cmdlets, see the PowerShell documentation.
Modifying User Properties
To modify user properties, you use the Set- QADUser cmdlet. You can use many of the attribute-specific attributes for Set-QADUser that you use for Get-QADUser (see Table 1). For example, to set Paris as the office location for a user, you’d use a command such as
Set-QADUser -City Paris
Modifying User Accounts
There’s more to managing user accounts than just reporting on and setting their properties. Other common tasks include enabling, unlocking, moving, and deleting user accounts. To enable user accounts, you use the Enable-QADUser cmdlet. For example, the command
To unlock accounts, you use the Unlock- QADUser cmdlet. For example, the command
To move user accounts, you use the Move-QADObject (and not Move-QADUser) cmdlet. Move-QADObject is a generic cmdlet that you can use to move any AD object to a different container. For example, to reorganize user accounts into organizational units (OUs) based on geography, you might use a command such as
To delete user accounts, you use Remove- QADObject, a generic cmdlet that lets you delete any AD object. You simply specify the object to delete, as in
Remove-QADObject 'Unlucky One'
Although you’ll be given a warning message along with a prompt to confirm the delete action, it’s highly recommended that you use PowerShell’s -WhatIf parameter with Remove-QADObject first. When you use this parameter, PowerShell lists what objects will be deleted but doesn’t actually delete them. This is especially handy when you use pipelines for input and you’re not certain which accounts might get into the result set. For example, suppose you want to use Get- QADUser to retrieve any disabled accounts whose name starts with the letter a in the quest.com/recycled container and pipe the retrieved objects to Remove-QADObject for deletion. By using the -WhatIf parameter in the command
-SearchRoot quest.com/recycled |
Continue on Page 3
Creating User Accounts
Many systems administrators would probably like an effortless way to create user accounts for newly hired employees. After all, who wants to repeatedly perform this routine task each time HR hires a new employee? To automate this task, you can use the New-QADUser cmdlet. For example, the command
If you want to create a user account that has more attributes set, you can specify them in a New-QADUser command such as
-DisplayName 'Dmitry Sotnikov'
-LastName Sotnikov |
Now, typing all that information isn’t exactly quick and painless, especially if you need to create many user accounts. Fortunately, PowerShell comes with commaseparated value (CSV) file support. The Import-CSV cmdlet opens a CSV file and assumes the first row in the file has the names of the object properties that are listed in subsequent rows.
If the CSV file’s column names coincide with the names of the New-QADUser parameters, like in the following sample file
Import-CSV 'C:\provision.csv' |
With this setup, you can tell HR to put the information about new employees in a CSV file in an agreed-on location and you can schedule a command like the one just given to run daily. Because you won’t have to manually create those accounts anymore, you’ll have more time for other administrative tasks.
If you want to try the New-QADUser cmdlet in a test environment, you can use the command
Easily Manage User Accounts and a Lot More
As you can see, ActiveRoles Management Shell for Active Directory contains many cmdlets that you can use to manage user accounts. It also contains many more cmdlets. Version 1.1 has 40 cmdlets for managing not only users but also groups, group memberships, computers, permissions, Windows Server 2008 fine-grained password policies, and more. To see the full list of cmdlets and what they do, you can download the “ActiveRoles Management Shell for Active Directory - Administrator’s Guide” from www.quest.com/powershell/activerolesserver. aspx or visit the online reference at wiki.powergui.org/index.php/QAD_ cmdlets_reference.