Related: How to parse a batch parameter
A. When you call a batch file, you can enter data after the command that the batch file refers to as %1, %2, etc. For example, in the batch file hello.bat, the following command
@echo hello %1 boy
hello john boy
if you called it as
The following table outlines how you can modify the passed parameter.
|%1||The normal parameter.|
|%~f1||Expands %1 to a fully qualified pathname. If you passed only a filename from the current directory, this parameter would also expand to the drive or directory.|
|%~d1||Extracts the drive letter from %1.|
|%~p1||Extracts the path from %1.|
|%~n1||Extracts the filename from %1, without the extension.|
|%~x1||Extracts the file extension from %1.|
|%~s1||Changes the n and x options’ meanings to reference the short name. You would therefore use %~sn1 for the short filename and %~sx1 for the short extension.|
The following table shows how you can combine some of the parameters.
|%~dp1||Expands %1 to a drive letter and path only.|
|%~sp1||For short path.|
|%~nx1||Expands %1 to a filename and extension only.|
To see all the parameters in action, put them into the batch file testing.bat, as follows.
echo fully qualified name %~f1
echo drive %~d1
echo path %~p1
echo filename %~n1
echo file extension %~x1
echo short filename %~sn1
echo short file extension %~sx1
echo drive and directory %~dp1
echo filename and extension %~nx1
Then, run the file with a long filename. For example, the batch file run on the file c:\temp\longfilename.long would produce the following output.
file extension .long
short filename LONGFI~1
short file extension .LON
drive and directory c:\TEMP\
filename and extension longfilename.long
This method also works on the second and subsequent parameters. You simply substitute the parameter for 1 (e.g., %~f2 for the second parameter’s fully qualified path name).
Related: Using URLs in Batch Files
The %0 parameter in a batch file holds information about the file when it runs and indicates which command extensions you can use with the file (e.g., %~dp0 gives the batch file’s drive and path).
Learn more: How many parameters can I pass to batch file?