The Asset Intelligence component of System Center Configuration Manager has always had its share of troubles. It’s the one piece of the on-premise management product that has never worked extremely well, requiring 3rd party solutions to provide better software license management.
With the release of ConfigMgr 2012 R2, another problem has now popped up. Many are reporting that, after installation, the Asset Intelligence synchronization works for a couple days, and then just stops. Some have uninstalled the feature and reinstalled, only to have it work for another couple days and stop again.
Microsoft is aware of the situation and the sustained engineering team is working on additional context around the issue and potential fix. I'll follow up when more information is available.
Per Microsoft, this issue is now resolved. The root cause was a service, or configuration change, on the backend Microsoft servers. Asset Intelligence sync issues should now be resolved.